Friday, 29 April 2011

"Amniocentesis & ultrasonography misused in India "

Indian sex ratio among children aged 0-6 is alarming ,the ratio  has declined from 976 females for every 1000 males in 1961 -914 in 2011.
The ratio in urban areas is lower than rural area, amniocentesis ultrasonography misused in India for detecting the sex of the unborn child.
patriarchy is  deep-rooted in Indian society , they doesn’t even respect the constitution  which is trying to  bring an egalitarian society .example is  honour killing . 
For the development of our society we need gender biased  society India needs..

Tuesday, 26 April 2011

“FOOD SECURITY PLUS NUTRITIONAL SECURITY “

By reforming the public distributuioin system we can provide the food security to general masses .raising the foodgrain production creating the modern warehousing system.availability of subsidised foodgrain.to privide food security we need huge production of wheat ,rice ,pulses .we need fertile agricultural land for our food production .rather than building of SEZ {special economic land },building corporate building on agricultural land.we have to includethe  destitute ,the urban poor and  the infirm .we have to include the edible oil ,pulses.in the end we need food security with nurtitioanal security .

Sunday, 17 April 2011

India Food Security Act Need

In India country of 1.2 Billion , with one of the fastest moving GDP rate and with one of the biggest pool of billionaires , we got 70 % of women suffering from Anaemia and where every second child is suffering from malnutrition . We also got the biggest pool of malnutrition children and one the biggest anemic women , for them we need Food Security Act to be passed.

Saturday, 16 April 2011

New Rice Block on Rise -R-5

From the last few years there is a decline in the rice stock, which lead into the increase in rice price impacting the poor people , a ban on the export of rice will complicate the situation. 
However , the increase in the rice production can be achieved by investment in areas like microfinance,farming equipments,irrigation techniques.A new food block is on rice , Cambodia , Vietnam , Thailand , Laos. Thailand wold's largest rice exporter , played dominant role in price rice.These countries playing a major role in food crisis. 


In the time of global food crisis China seems to be secure . In China increase in grain production satisfy their hunger population. China's contribution to the world bring food stability . 

Friday, 15 April 2011

"Help Farmers Help Your Self "

 New Challenges are coming to Indian agricultural industry ,the facts are terrifying between 1980 to 1997 ,3.2% ,but since 1997 has average 1.5% .
Among Indian farmer 40%wants to quit agricultural practices this needs to decline GDP from 56% in 1950-51 to 18.6% in 2006-7,  2/3 of population is depends on agriculture ,agricultural Labour increase to 106 million ,our politician and bureaucratic think that agriculture is rescued by high value flouriculture and horticulture .
Hybrid seeds are putting great pressure on farmers,the farmers are trapped between new and old technology .
Increasing use of fertilizers and pesticide damage the soil quality ,so it makes the farmers knowledge redundant.
Central Govt policy has even cause harm ,there is a decline of public investment in agricultural research development and infrastructure  .
Indian is once again is a food importer and its hungry population are getting more hungrier ,average daily consumption of calorie fell from 1830 cal per person in 1980 to 1600 in 1998 .this group spent 70 % of income on food .
The intake of calories is declining among the poorest , in 2000 OECD Counties paid agricultural subsidies about 363 billion Dollars before the bush Admin awarded 180 billion in subsidies to agribusiness corporation ,
on contrary India provide 1 Billion in subsidies to 550 million farmers in 2001 ,and obliged by the world bank and the IMF to eliminate this .
Colonial government introduce transport system and encourage farmers to grow cash crops ,this leads to shrink the area of food grain production.
About 60% of Indian population are relaid on agriculture for livelihood  ,agriculture contribute hardly to 3% to GDP,this shows a greater impact on life of Indian farmer,they do not have seeds to sow ,food to eat ,cloths to wear and lives under the blue sky and their life becomes full of blues ,It is the land of largest number of poor and malnourished people in world .
 I do not know ,that we can make the UN MDG reducing Hunger and Poverty by Half by 2015.
Corruption is so much rampant in agriculture industry that funds which are given for agricultural development is used by politicians and bureaucrats for their development .
By Helping farmers we are helping ourself ,in return they provide food for us .For improving the agricultural areas we have to identify the effected areas a]where monsoon shows their adverse effects on crop ,animal and food .
There should be a pond to store rain water .where there is good moisture of soil we can take steps to increase the productivity and net sown are by using fertilizers and new technology ,There should be a seed bank in every village,members of panchayat should be trained in arts science of managing agricultural practices and they should also trained in disaster relief measures ,food grain capacity should be millions of tons 
One day we shall overcome from these challenges .

" India A Land Of 4 P's "

In india millions of people living in poverty ,india is a 5th most powerful nation in the world,when it comes to know that millions of people living below the poverty line in this country ,india can grow at more then 11% GDP per annum to truly transform the employment and poverty scenario ,with the advancement of technology and development we are able to manufacture low price product and services ,this shows positive impact in international scenario ,India make an a Ace in IT & Service sector ,Indian talent is renowned all over the world ,weather its a filed of Medicine ,Biotech ,Space research and others .
In Defense sector we are capable to manufacture our own needs , we are able to manufacture Aircraft, Tejas which is first indigenously built aircraft .indian international  peace keeping force is famous through out the wolrd to bring peace in conflicted areas .
 By removing the social evils of our society like poverty ,unemployment , infanticide etc, we can bring our land on path of prosperity ,we have to focus on rural infrastructure ,by making better roads ,which are connected to metro cities .
Women empowerment at grass root level ,self self help group of womens help in the emancipation of their status.
There should be greater participation on small scale industries ,in todays world India is a land of 4 P's
Power , Peace ,Prosperity and Poverty .





Thursday, 14 April 2011

Target Free Food Distribution "Can We Feed Our People Forever "

Human resource is the real capital of a country ,poor are not a liability but an asset ,they help in the production of good and services .On contrary must ensure that there people get enough food to eat ,the level of per head serial supply and consumption in India by 2007 174kg fell below the 182kg recorded by the least developed countries and vast conderable below the 196 level of Africa.
By 2008 the consumption of cereals fell to 156 kg due to large export and stock ,Cereal account for 9/10 of food grains which provide 3 quarter of both energy intake and protein intake for the average consumer.
Our politicians can't see that million of food grains are rotting in open air ,they would rather let food grains rot then feed the poor .
John Maynard Keynes remarked that the world is moved by little else but Ideas .
our policymaker still not understand that if every person saves more our nation save less, they are behaving like housewives ,cutting back spending to balance the budget ,even though they have to deal with rampant unemployment ..
incorrect idea here is that,,our cereal consumption is not falling ,when a country developed ,its purchasing power increase ,people change their food habit ,from inferior food to superior food,for example ,meat ,milk,egg so on. 
when a average income rise of a person ,their diet becomes more diversified to superior food.
higher the average income of a country ,the higher is it cereal consumption .U.S consumed 900kg per head of cereal in 2007.of which three fifth is used as feed for animals.
why has indias average consumption declined to such a low level despite rising average income,since india and china have seen high growth rates ,,due to depression in agriculture ,,and still not come out of it ...rise on unemployment 
only small section of population is enjoying the fruits of development ,,and rest of is going to black hole .
NSS data shows that ,except 2 states ,there is a fall in animal product intake ,people other than rich are not diversifying diets, they can not eat animal products for balancing there nutrition .
a huge quantity of food grain either exported or stocked . this reduce the supply of cereal for domestic consumption . 


what we can do is ,,bold measures are required to deal this, MGNREGS should be seriously implemented .spread to urban areas ,,
build storage facilities for food grain. rather than rotting in open .
there should be target free food distribution through PDS.
by correcting our  incorrect ideas we can feed our people for ever.. 

Monday, 11 April 2011

" Labour Condition In Nuclear Plant "



Those who are working in Nuclear Plant are all doing worlds deadliest jobs ,they risk their lives for the safety of society.Recent incident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant open the eyes of IAEA.
Now think new health and safety measures at nuclear reactor,many MNC's are becoming part of nuclear industries for example nuclear industry of Japan is operated by Toshiba and Hitachi .
These companies hire contractors for labor recruitment ,The labour force comes from remote part of the city ,some of them are already working but they work at nuclear plant to earn more money.

Labourers are working in dangerous situation anything can happen any time ,those who are working in the Nuclear plants are risk there lives more then to others,
Violation of  Human and Labour rights in nuclear industry, Health and safety condition are denied to them on one or other pretext .they are regulated by their contractors who are engulfing their human and labour rights,
These Contractors and MNC's are responsible for the deterioted condition of the workers in nuclear plant .

If  we see in a hierarchal order ,those who are  sitting at the top earn more salary, wages and safer than those who are working in the Nuclear plants .

Health Problem- They never tell about there injuries to their employers because of losing their job,it means there is no job security .they are effected by different form of cancer ,many experience health related problems like burning of eyes ,breathing problem .
Radiation exposure is one of the biggest problem to them ,radioactive elements is found in food and water.
Three mile Island ,Chernobyl disaster and Fukushima Daiichi tell us about the radiation Exposure .
In The recent incident in Fukushima Daiichi one thing was not destroyed "Spirit of Workers" who are working in plant  can be called new form of  "Samurai " .
The recent incident of nuclear disaster in Japan gives a signal to those countries who does not update their safety norms
New reform should be needed in improving the working condition of worker who are working in nuclear plant ,by reforming health and safety measures at work we can provide them a safe job.

Friday, 8 April 2011

"Rise In Food Prices"


food inflation which cross the double digit last week ,wholsale price index which is based in food index was diclining,the prices of milk egg and meat remamin firm.
the Average family can afford to move from coarse grains to cereals ,milk meat egg and so on . The price rise in these protein remain high the rise in fuel prise hardned the food inflation.Food inflation always remain high , whether it is on Ac of an unexpcted rise in food prices or due to surge in the prices of non food products or combination of several factors.
The rise in food prices is especially impact on the poor than others .Indian rural population spent about 67% of house hold expenditure on food.
Globalization is also playing a vital role in the rise of prices.The purchasing power parity of developing country is very low .
By stepping into  the developed phase, the purchasing power parity becomes smaller.
There is a strong connection between inclusion and inflation,if the higher savings of rural India enters the financial system this ideal money adds the liquidity of the market ,this makes our country financial literate and stoke the inflation .
Moneitisation  of the economy contribute the overall prices .Indian economy is achieving high growth from the past several years ,this will lead to high inflation .
Stable inflation in the coming years " What we needed in some respect "It is good.
This shows our economy is globalise and wider in its horizon .

Wednesday, 6 April 2011

"African countries are doing much better than india in realising MDG"


Brasilia, 11 March 2010 – Less than five years from the 2015 deadline, a new methodology is proposed to evaluate MDG progress taking into consideration the commitment of countries by measuring their effort to accelerate MDG progress.  Results are impressive. Burkina Faso, which tops the list, showed improvement in 91.3 per cent of the MDG indicators. On the opposite direction, three Gulf States – Bahrain, Oman e Kuwait - have progressed in less than 30 per cent of the indicators. Brazil, as an emerging economy, was not left behind and improved almost 70 per cent of its development indicators, and is ranked ahead of India, South Africa and China, for example.
The new method is introduced by Degol Hailu and Raquel Tsukada on Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: A Measure of Progress, published by the UNDP International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth. By comparing the indicator levels before and after the 2000 agreement, it is possible to account for the efforts made by countries to meet the targets, considering particularities and distinguished realities instead of global set targets themselves. The publication points out that a significant number of sub-Sahran African countries have considerably improved the rate of progress on the MDGs. Eight of the ten countries whose rates accelerated most are from the region.
Hailu and Tsukada also compare differents goals and set of indicators. The progress in maternal mortality slowed down in 16 of 21 countries with available data. On the other hand, the indicator of people living below the poverty line improved in almost 80 per cent of the countries while universal primary education rates have accelerated in 70 per cent of the countries.
 It is a another perspective on evaluation and measurement, demonstrating that developing countries, specially those in Africa, are among the best performers in terms of MDG acceleration. Moving away from an analysis stricly in terms of 2015 targets, the new approach avoids creating “failure” labels and look at the commitment to the MDGs and the effort to accelerate progress.

Tuesday, 5 April 2011

"Children In Coal Mines"

A large no of  Children's are working in mines in Jharkhand (Hazaribagh) ,these illegal  mines are just like a rat hole , by just mear slip of the foot u will die.


The Social Impact  - These children started to work early in the morning and they came out when there is dark ,they usually work more then 12 Hour,then they drink and gamble instead of playing sports and studying.
There right to education is compensated in coal mines.


Physical Fatalities -   Deaths are very frequent incident in coal mines , children's suffer from deadly diseases and respiratory problem is common among them .
these child workers are come Mostly from Bengal , Bihar , Chattisgarh .they are unable to reach the primary health centers 


Molestation of young Girls - Many young girls are sexually exploited by their employers and also forced into human trafficking .


 We can hope that the Government should do something for these children and give their Fundamental rights to them .













"LDC" New Block On Rise

India is going to host least developed countries ministrial conference (LDC),united nations created this block in 1971 there are 48 LDC of these 33 are in Africa ,14 in Asia pacific and 1 in central America .
India is surrounded by five least developed countries , these are Bangladesh ,Afghanistan, Bhutan, Pakistan ,Myanmar Nepal .
Only three LDCs are able to come out from this categories they are Botswana Capeverde and Maldives .

LDCs contribute to only 1 % of global trade LDCs appreciates the India initiative in policy approach ,they are claiming now for a new international support architecture .
Extensive partnership with least developed countries will bring a good relation in socio-economic and political spheres,the least developed countries will help India in the race of permanent seat in United Nations
We hope our ambitious goal that is to reduce the number of LDCs can be achieved by 2020 .  

"Right To Live In A Corruption Free State Is Our Fundamental Right "


First brick for the lokpal institution was laid by administrative reform commission which was headed by morarji desai in 1966,they recommended for setting up two institution "lokpal and lokayukta".
They are replica of institution of Scandinavian countries . 
We adapted the model of new zealand,that is parliamentary commissioner for investigation where judiciary is kept out from it .
First attempt to bring this bill was initiated by the congress in may 1968 ,headed by Indira Gandhi .till now eight attempts have been made to pass this bill  but every time the bill was lapsed either due to the dissolution of lok sabha or withdrawal by the government .
The Character of these institution is changed on every new bill,here we can see the greediness of our politicians,i think they does not want a corruption free state .but we the people of india shall have it .what we need is that these institutions should be totally unbiased just like other fundamental rights ,Right to Live in curruption free state   is our fundamental right .
It Confers the duty on state to make a corrupt free state .

Monday, 4 April 2011

Development in Health Research

In India very less amount of money is spent on research and development .
Leading chronic non communicable & communicable diseases are on rise.Health research is one of the most important area to fight from new generation diseases.

 Publication Of health research journals are very low in numbers, no development is taking place in health research reports,  many reports are outdated and does not show us about the new millennium diseases which are engulfing our world in a silent manner .

These health research reports are published in bulk , major thing lacking in these report is quality.

Major portion of our national income is not spend on research & development that is why we are lagging in this sphere.We can overcome from these loopholes by better organised of our health structure and research policies.

Nation Health Research Policy come in 2007 after the creation of health research department.

 NHRP important areas of work :- 
  • Rationalisation of policies and program for the betterment of vulnerable  section of our society.
  • Making health research plans.
  • Transparency in decision making.
  • Multidisciplinary Research which include cooperation between physical,social and medical science.
Coordination in Knowledge 

There should be good coordination between different institution of our society sharing of knowledge between private and public sector bring worth in health research development , a major development in this area can transform our health policy. This force bring overall development in our country.

Saturday, 2 April 2011

No food grain growing faster than grain


Indian agriculture should be seen as a rural urban continuation . Urbanization and structural change in the labor force is taking place at a faster pace. No food grain growing faster than grain and no crop based agriculture like animal husbandry growing more.Factors that influence the demand of goods are.
1 population
2 income and its distribution .
3 purchasing power parity
4price of other goods and services
5 personnel preference .
GDP growth in 97/03 is technology oriented ..
there is increase in  the demand of  non agricultural good because there is low demand of cereals and other grains.
The urbanization pattern in India  is decentralized. the ratio of urban settlement in smaller town class 1 are not increasing .as  we know that the urbanization the out come of both centrifugal and centripetal forces .
India is urbanized more than what it says and its non farm employment growth is globally comparable.
In coming year Indian agriculture meet the required food security and rapidly transform itself.
A new phase of Indian agricultural in process....
With the development of markets and shifting of working population from villages to city  and from crop production to value added activities..This will lead to higher employment opportunities . In the end lead our country to great heights economic  developments

Friday, 1 April 2011

Hunger Facts of India



Hunger Facts
1.
Hunger remains the No.1 cause of death in the world. Aids, Cancer etc. follow.
2.
There are 820 million chronically hungry people in the world.
3.
1/3rd of the worldÂ’s hungry live in India.
4.
836 million Indians survive on less than Rs. 20 (less than half-a-dollar) a day.
5.
Over 20 crore Indians will sleep hungry tonight.
6.
10 million people die every year of chronic hunger and hunger-related diseases. Only eight percent are the victims of hunger caused by high-profile earthquakes, floods, droughts and wars.
7.
India has 212 million undernourished people – only marginally below the 215 million estimated for 1990–92.
8.
99% of the 1000 Adivasi households from 40 villages in the two states, who comprised the total sample, experienced chronic hunger (unable to get two square meals, or at least one square meal and one poor/partial meal, on even one day in the week prior to the survey). Almost as many (24.1 per cent) had lived in conditions of semi-starvation during the previous month.
9.
Over 7000 Indians die of hunger every day.
10.
Over 25 lakh Indians die of hunger every year.
11.
Despite substantial improvement in health since independence and a growth rate of 8 percent in recent years, under-nutrition remains a silent emergency in India, with almost 50 percent of Indian children underweight and more than 70 percent of the women and children with serious nutritional deficiencies as anemia.
12.
The 1998 – 99 Indian survey shows 57 percent of the children aged 0 – 3 years to be either severely or moderately stunted and/or underweight.
13.
During 2006 – 2007, malnutrition contributed to seven million Indian children dying, nearly two million before the age of one.
14.
30% of newborn are of low birth weight, 56% of married women are anaemic and 79% of children age 6-35 months are anaemic.
15.
The number of hungry people in India is always more than the number of people below official poverty line (while around 37% of rural households were below the poverty line in 1993-94, 80% of households suffered under nutrition).
Sources :
UN World Food Programme
UN World Health Organization: Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, 2006
UN Food and Agriculture Organization: SOFI 2006 Report
National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (India)
National Family Health Survey 2005 – 06 (NFHS-3) (India)
Centre for Environment and Food Security (India)
Rural 21 (India)

2011 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics


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2011 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics
World Hunger Education Service
This fact sheet is divided into the following sections:
Hunger is a term which has three meanings (Oxford English Dictionary 1971)
  • the uneasy or painful sensation caused by want of food; craving appetite. Also the exhausted condition caused by want of food
  • the want or scarcity of food in a country
  • a strong desire or craving
World hunger refers to the second definition, aggregated to the world level. The related technical term (in this case operationalized in medicine)  is malnutrition.1 
Malnutrition is a general term that indicates a lack of some or all nutritional elements necessary for human health (Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia).
There are two basic types of malnutrition. The first and most important is protein-energy malnutrition--the lack of enough protein (from meat and other sources) and food that provides energy (measured in calories) which all of the basic food groups provide. This is the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed.  The second type of malnutrition, also very important, is micronutrient (vitamin and mineral) deficiency. This is not the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed, though it is certainly very important. 
[Recently there has also been a move to include obesity as a third form of malnutrition. Considering obesity as malnutrition expands the previous usual meaning of the term which referred to poor nutrition due to lack of food inputs.2 It is poor nutrition, but it is certainly not typically due to a lack of calories, but rather too many (although poor food choices, often due to poverty, are part of the problem). Obesity will not be considered here, although obesity is certainly a health problem and is increasingly considered as a type of malnutrition.]
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is the most lethal form of malnutrition/hunger. It is basically a lack of calories and protein. Food is converted into energy by humans, and the energy contained in food is measured by calories.  Protein is necessary for key body functions including provision of essential amino acids and  development and maintenance of muscles.
925 million hungry people in 2010
No one really knows how many people are malnourished. The statistic most frequently cited is that of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, which measures 'undernutrition'. The most recent estimate, released in  October 2010 by FAO,  says that 925 million people are undernourished. As the figure below shows, the number of hungry people has increased since 1995-97, though the number is down from last year. The increase has been due to three factors: 1) neglect of agriculture relevant to very poor people by governments and international agencies; 2) the current worldwide economic crisis, and 3) the significant increase of food prices in the last several years which has been devastating to those with only a few dollars a day to spend. 925 million people is 13.6 percent of the estimated world population of 6.8 billion. Nearly all of the undernourished are in developing countries. 
Number of hungry people, 1969-2010

Source: FAO
In round numbers there are 7 billion people in the world. Thus, with an estimated 925 million hungry people in the world, 13.1 percent, or almost 1 in 7 people are hungry.
The FAO estimate is based on statistical aggregates.  It looks at a country's income level and income distribution and uses this information to estimate how many people receive such a low level of income that they are malnourished.  It is not an estimate based on seeing to what extent actual people are malnourished and projecting from there (as would be done by survey sampling). [It has been argued that the FAO approach is not sufficient to give accurate estimates of malnutrition (Poverty and Undernutrition  p. 298 by Peter Svedberg).] 
Undernutrition is a relatively new concept, but is increasingly used.  It should be taken as basically equivalent to malnutrition.  (It should be said as an aside, that the idea of undernourishment, its relationship to malnutrition, and the reasons for its emergence as a concept is not clear to Hunger Notes.)
Children are the most visible victims of undernutrition.  Children who are poorly nourished suffer up to 160 days of illness each year. Poor nutrition plays a role in at least half of the 10.9 million child deaths each year--five million deaths.  Undernutrition magnifies the effect of every disease, including measles and malaria. The estimated proportions of deaths in which undernutrition is an underlying cause are roughly similar for diarrhea (61%), malaria (57%), pneumonia (52%), and measles (45%) (Black 2003, Bryce 2005). Malnutrition can also be caused by diseases, such as the diseases that cause diarrhea, by reducing the body's ability to convert food into usable nutrients.
According to the most recent estimate that Hunger Notes could find, malnutrition, as measured by stunting, affects 32.5 percent of children in developing countries--one of three (de Onis 2000). Geographically, more than 70 percent of malnourished children live in Asia, 26 percent in Africa and 4 percent in Latin America and the Caribbean. In many cases, their plight began even before birth with a malnourished mother. Under-nutrition among pregnant women in developing countries leads to 1 out of 6 infants born with low birth weight. This is not only a risk factor for neonatal deaths, but also causes learning disabilities, mental, retardation, poor health, blindness and premature death.
The world produces enough food to feed everyone. World agriculture produces 17 percent more calories per person today than it did 30 years ago, despite a 70 percent population increase. This is enough to provide everyone in the world with at least 2,720 kilocalories (kcal) per person per day (FAO 2002, p.9).  The principal problem is that many people in the world do not have sufficient land to grow, or income to purchase, enough food. 
What are the causes of hunger is a fundamental question, with varied answers. 
Poverty is the principal cause of hunger. The causes of poverty include poor people's lack of resources, an extremely unequal income distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict, and hunger itself. As of 2008 (2005 statistics), the World Bank has estimated that there were an estimated 1,345 million poor people in developing countries who live on $1.25 a day or less.3 This compares to the later FAO estimate of  1.02 billion undernourished people.  Extreme poverty remains an alarming problem in the world’s developing regions, despite some progress that reduced "dollar--now $1.25-- a day" poverty from (an estimated) 1900 million people in 1981, a reduction of 29 percent over the period. Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially, East Asia, with the major improvement occurring in China. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people in extreme poverty has increased.  The statement that 'poverty is the principal cause of hunger'  is, though correct, unsatisfying.  Why then are (so many) people poor?  The next section summarizes Hunger Notes  answer.
Harmful economic systems are the principal cause of poverty and hunger. Hunger Notes believes that the principal underlying cause of poverty and hunger is the ordinary operation of the economic and political systems in the world. Essentially control over resources and income is based on military, political and economic power that typically ends up in the hands of a minority, who live well, while those at the bottom barely survive, if they do. We have described the operation of this system in more detail in our special section onHarmful economic systems
Conflict as a cause of hunger and poverty. At the end of 2005, the global number of refugees was at its lowest level in almost a quarter of a century. Despite some large-scale repatriation movements, the last three years have witnessed a significant increase in refugee numbers, due primarily to the violence taking place in Iraq and Somalia. By the end of 2008, the total number of refugees under UNHCR’s mandate exceeded 10 million. The number of conflict-induced internally displaced persons (IDPs) reached some 26 million worldwide at the end of the year . Providing exact figures on the number of stateless people is extremely difficult  But, important, (relatively) visible though it is, and anguishing for those involved conflict is less important as poverty (and its causes) as a cause of hunger. (Using the statistics above 1.02 billion people suffer from chronic hunger while 36 million people are displaced [UNHCR 2008])
Hunger is also a cause of poverty, and thus of hunger. By causing poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental impairment, hunger can lead to even greater poverty by reducing people's ability to work and learn, thus leading to even greater hunger. 
Climate change Climate change is increasingly viewed as a current and future cause of hunger and poverty. Increasing drought, flooding, and changing climatic patterns requiring a shift in crops and farming practices that may not be easily accomplished are three key issues.  See the Hunger Notes special report:  Hunger, the environment, and climate change for further information, especially articles in the section: Climate change, global warming and the effect on poor people such as Global warming causes 300,000 deaths a year, study says and Could food shortages bring down civilization?
The target set at the 1996 World Food Summit was to halve the number of undernourished people by 2015 from their number in 1990-92. (FAO uses three year averages in its calculation of undernourished people.) The (estimated) number of undernourished people in developing countries  was 824 million in 1990-92. In 2009, the number had climbed to 1.02 billion people.  The WFS goal is a global goal adopted by the nations of the world; the present outcome indicates how marginal the efforts were in face of the real need.
So, overall,  the world is not making progress toward the world food summit goal, although there has been progress in Asia, and in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Quite a few  trace elements or micronutrients--vitamins and minerals--are important for health. 1 out of 3 people in developing countries are affected by vitamin and mineral deficiencies, according to the World Health Organization. Three, perhaps the most important in terms of health consequences for poor people in developing countries, are:
Vitamin A Vitamin A deficiency  can cause night blindness and reduces the body's resistance to disease. In children Vitamin A deficiency can also cause growth retardation. Between 100 and 140 million children are vitamin A deficient. An estimated 250,000 to 500 000 vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight. (World Health Organization)
Iron Iron deficiency is a principal cause of anemia. Two billion people—over 30 percent of the world’s population—are anemic, mainly due to iron deficiency, and, in developing countries, frequently exacerbated by malaria and worm infections. For children, health consequences include premature birth, low birth weight, infections, and elevated risk of death. Later, physical and cognitive development are impaired, resulting in lowered school performance. For pregnant women, anemia contributes to 20 percent of all maternal deaths (World Health Organization).
Iodine Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) jeopardize children’s mental health– often their very lives. Serious iodine deficiency during pregnancy may result in stillbirths, abortions and congenital abnormalities such as cretinism, a grave, irreversible form of mental retardation that affects people living in iodine-deficient areas of Africa and Asia. IDD also causes mental impairment that lowers intellectual prowess at home, at school, and at work. IDD affects over 740 million people, 13 percent of the world’s population. Fifty million people have some degree of mental impairment caused by IDD (World Health Organization).
(Updated March 6, 2011)
1. The relation between hunger, malnutrition, and other terms such as undernutrition is not 'perfectly clear,' so we have attempted to spell them out briefly in "World Hunger Facts."
2. For example, the Oxford English Dictionary (1971 edition) has 'insufficient nutrition' as the only meaning for malnutrition.
3. The table  used to calculate this number.
Region% in  $1.25 a day povertyPopulation (millions)Pop. in $1 a day poverty (millions)
East Asia and Pacific16.81,884316
Latin America and the Caribbean 8.255045
South Asia40.41,476596
Sub-Saharan Africa50.9763388
  Total Developing countries28,846731345
Europe and Central Asia0.0447317
Middle East and North Africa0.0430511
Total 54511372